ABFM 2019 Curro Award Winner: Yoon Jung Choi (Syracuse)

Yoon-Jung Choi (Syracuse University – Maxwell School) is this year’s Michael Curro Student Paper Award Winner for her paper “Property Tax Interaction Among Overlapping Local Jurisdictions: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from School Bond Referenda.” She will be presenting on Friday at 4-5:15. John Yinger is her faculty adviser.

Interesting FYI: I worked with Choi in her last year of her MPA here at SPEA on a readings course. As part of that I had her do a meta-literature review of the two most recent years (2015-2016 at the time) of the Journal of Public Economics, National Tax Journal, and Public Budgeting & Finance. The database of articles is here and the her “three journal summary” that explains the themes and differences of the journals is here. It is quite good and I try to remember to share it periodically with the public finance doctoral students.

ABFM Doctoral Student Profiles: Ani Ter-Mkrtchyan

In preparation for ABFM’s upcoming conference, I am doing a series of profiles on the doctoral students on the job market.

Ani Ter-Mkrtchyan (University of Oklahoma – Political Science) will be presenting “Political Environments, Public Finance Outcomes and Financial Development” at the conference. Her dissertation (chaired by Hank Jenkins-Smith) is on Governance, Ideology and the Nuclear Waste Stalemate in the USA. I have the first part of her job market paper, “Global Financial System Outcomes after 2008: A Longitudinal Comparison,” here is the abstract:

The paper examines the condition of global financial systems before and after the 2008 financial crisis that was felt worldwide. Using a comparative perspective, we assess longitudinal trends in the functioning of the financial systems to explore the nature of financial market recovery and how financial system outcomes may have been on a different trajectory after 2008 than they were before 2008. We measure financial system outcomes across four dimensions: financial depth, access, efficiency, and stability. In addition, we compare differences in the level of development of a country to explore how variations in the external environment for a country’s financial system influenced the rate of decline in 2008 as well as the rate of recovery after 2008. Our findings indicate that the recovery of financial system outcomes was stronger for developed countries as opposed to transition and developing economies. As suspected, we also find evidence for the impact of the environmental context on financial system outcomes. In particular, the correlations are stronger for regulatory quality and the rule of law: political stability seems to have no effect on financial system outcomes for the 180 cases in our study.

Visit Ani’s website to learn more.

ABFM Doctoral Student Profiles: Chuanyi Guo

In preparation for ABFM’s upcoming conference, I am doing a series of profiles on the doctoral students on the job market.

Chuanyi Guo (University of Illinois-Chicago, Department of Economics) is presenting “The Impact of State Intervention on School District Fiscal Performance: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design” on Saturday morning at 8am. This is also his job market paper, which has an R&R at the National Tax Journal, and the abstract is as follows:

State monitoring and intervention has been implemented to reveal and address fiscal problems in local governments, yet we know very little about its role in promoting financial performance in a causal sense. This paper estimates the causal effect of state intervention on fiscal performance of monitored school districts by using district-level administrative data from Illinois State Board of Education. Utilizing the system design that only low-performing districts receive intervention from the state, I employ a regression discontinuity design based on financial indicators that are introduced in the system to evaluate fiscal positions and determine intervention. Results indicate that there are precisely zero effects on future financial outcomes of school districts. However, in heterogeneity analysis, I document statistically significant positive impacts on financial indicators reflecting long-run fiscal health in a relatively long term for districts with certain characteristics. For elementary school districts, I show that state intervention improves the long-term debt capacity remaining by 15-20 percentage points more on average for districts just receiving the intervention in three to four years since the intervention, compared to those barely not. This indicates that they are less reliant on issuing long-term debt in order to meet obligations. Similarly, among accrual basis school districts, I find that the intervention decreases the value of Expenditure to Revenue Ratio by 0.035-0.050 unit more for districts barely receiving the intervention, suggesting that their budget is becoming more structurally balanced.

His dissertation committee is chaired by Darren Lubotsky and David Merriman. Check out Guo’s website to find his CV and other working papers.

ABFM Doctoral Student Profiles: Juniper Katz

In preparation for ABFM’s upcoming conference, I am doing a series of profiles on the doctoral students on the job market.

Juniper Katz is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Colorado Denver. She will be presenting “Built to Last: Endowment Building Strategies and Repercussions for Charitable Nonprofits” in the 11:00am Thursday session.

Juniper is an environment and nonprofit scholar with applied and academic research experience. Juniper has two areas of research. One focuses on nonprofit financial management and the other focuses on citizen-state interactions in environmental policy settings.

Her dissertation, The Effects of Land Conservation Policy on the Creation of Public Values, examines how the process of land conservation policy implementation not only produces policy outcomes, but also changes how citizens and nonprofits conceive of their obligations to society. Using original surveys, text analysis, and content coding, she finds that agency managers use instrumental policy purposes to define a set of preferred values that are conveyed to landowners during implementation. The effect of such value conveyance was the voluntary adoption of new conservation practices by landowners. When asked why agency value promotion was meaningful, landowners report an increased awareness of the public benefit of their actions. These insights expand conventional understandings of democracy by including public administration in the creation and enforcement of public values.

She has a paper from the dissertation under peer review. In addition to the dissertation paper, Juniper has several other publications:

  • A solo-authored paper that examines the effects of policy belief on the perceptions of actors engaged in debates over hydraulic fracking in New York was published in Review of Policy Research in 2018.
  • A co-authored publication in the Journal Environmental Policy & Planning examines advocacy coalitions engaged in policy change in Indian shale gas development.
  • A publication in Review of Policy Research analyzes the use of policy narratives in assessing the politics of climate and air issues.

Prior to returning to graduate school, Juniper worked for ten years in land and water conservation and was a nonprofit executive director. In that work, she raised over $5 million in grant awards for operations and program support from local, state, and federal sources and protected over 49,000 acres of agricultural, natural, and recreational land. Her applied experience informs her nonprofit and environmental policy research and teaching.

Juniper’s website and CV can be found at: juniperkatz.com

ABFM Doctoral Student Profiles: Andrew Duggan

In preparation for ABFM’s upcoming conference, I am doing a series of profiles on the doctoral students on the job market.

Andrew “Andy” Duggan is a fourth year PhD candidate, and a Graduate Teaching Assistant of Public Policy and Administration at the L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs in Richmond, Virginia.  He’ll be presenting “State Environmental Agency Budgets: Providing a Portal into Focal Determinants and Key Moderating Roles” in the Saturday 9:30am session. His key research interest—and dissertation under the supervision of Professor Wenli Yan—examines political, legal, and institutional determinants to national and subnational agency appropriations drawing from the fields of public budgeting, public administration, economics, and environmental policy.  Current research efforts also include exploring the linkages between risk perceptions, policy processes, and governmental responsiveness to civil society in the context of human and ecological risks.  A separate qualitative research project underway investigates the participation and utilization of public health benefit programs drawing from a behavioral framework.  In addition, he is working on pilot research in the area of alternative delivery through the lens of principle agent theory; public choice theory; and transactional cost economics to explain barriers to privatization of information technology functions.

Andy has also has a co-authored article on the costs and benefits of distributed solar energy in the Journal of Environmental Management and Planning. You can find his CV here.

ABFM Doctoral Student Profiles: Felipe Lozano Rojas

In preparation for ABFM’s upcoming conference, I am doing a series of profiles on the doctoral students on the job market.

Felipe Lozano Rojas (Indiana University – School of Public & Environmental Affairs) is on the ABFM conference schedule in several places:

  • Thursday, 1:45 PM, “Getting My Sugar Back: Effects of Soda Taxes Beyond Beverages”
  • Friday, 4PM, “Local Governments Fiscal Responses to the Opioid Epidemics”
  • Saturday, 8AM, “Do Sin Taxes Help Strengthen Local Government Finances?”

Maureen Pirog and I serve as Felipe’s dissertation committee chairs. Felipe’s minor was in data science, so big data topics (e.g. machine learning) are prevalent throughout his research that otherwise targets the intersection of public finance as social policy. His papers are also very long in their interrogation of the the topics he’s writing on. Here is a draft of one of his recent working papers:

Taxes on sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are proposed with the promise to improve public health outcomes as people curve SSB consumption and thus, sugar intake, with price hikes, but they also come with an embedded equity concern due to their regressive nature. We evaluate the soda tax introduced by Berkeley in 2015 with two questions in mind: What has been the effect of the policy in actual sugar intake, and what are the differences in treatment effects across income groups. This article is the first to get closer to the aim of the policy by looking at actual sugar intake, feeding retailer POS data with the matched Nutrition Fact information on sugar. I find that sugar intake has fallen, but at a lower rate if compared to liquid content changes, an indication that the policy has provided an incentive to buy SSBs with higher sugar concentration. Furthermore, the evaluation is incomplete if equity is not addressed as well, especially when the public health concern affects low-income households disproportionately. By taking advantage of the richness in POS data, I follow baskets representing income groups’ SSB consumption. We find that the reduction in sugar and liquid consumption has been fairly homogeneous across the different baskets, with the middle income groups’ baskets facing the deepest reduction in consumption of sugar and liquid and the lowest hike in prices.

Felipe has couple of published papers and a recent revise and resubmit at National Tax Journal on the incidence of state sales tax holidays. He also has papers under review on cash subsidies for college loans using data from his work at the World Bank, which may prove to be informative to policy debates currently under way. His website and CV are available here.

ABFM Doctoral Student Profile: JoEllen Pope

In preparation for ABFM’s upcoming conference, I am doing a series of profiles on the doctoral students on the job market.

JoEllen Pope (UNC-Charlotte, Public Policy) is presenting “New Public Disaster Management: Does Managerial Discretion Impact Organizational Performance” in the 8:00 session on Friday. She has a Master of Public Administration with a concentration in Emergency Management. She is a practicing Certified Public Accountant with over twenty years’ experience and served as a firefighter for seven years. Her dissertation, supervised by Dr. Suzanne M. Leland, is titled Flooded with Complexity: Do Organizational Structural Complexity, Coordination, and Managerial Discretion Impact Natural Disaster Preparedness?.  JoEllen will defend her dissertation Fall 2019. She has a publication on political influences over county-level election administration expenditures in the American Journal of Political Science, two at Social Science Quarterly, one at Urban Affairs Review, and another three papers under review. JoEllen researches public finance, emergency preparedness and disaster, and local election administration finance. Here is the abstract of her job market paper, which is the paper being presented at ABFM:

Between 1953 and February 2017, United States presidents declared 2288 major natural disaster declarations and 369 emergency declarations (FEMA, 2017). Hurricane Katrina alone affected 31 colleges and universities in the areas along the Gulf Coast (Kapucu & Khosa, 2013). Improved preparedness performance can impact response effectiveness (Kapucu, 2008). Organizational performance is a global issue regarding how management influences the performance of public organizations and how we measure it (Boyne et. al., 2006). Also, allocation of resources and decision-making are key areas of research (Pugh et al., 1968). Previous literature on public management presents a gap regarding institutions of higher education (IHE). This is especially important since public and private nonprofit colleges include over 90% of enrollment (NCES, 2016). Regarding IHEs and performance of the natural disaster preparedness function, this study asks: How do we measure preparedness outputs? How does budgetary discretion affect performance? How does the centralization of decision-making affect performance? and How does organizational red tape affect it? New public management (NPM) reforms to improve effectiveness and efficient have impacted public sector over last 25 years (Christensen & Laegreid, 2011; Pollitt & Bouckaert, 2004). As a part of NPM, public managerialism claims that there is a similar set of management skills and methods that are applicable to public organizations and there is a shift in emphasis from inputs to outputs and outcomes (Pollitt, 1998; Christensen & Laegreid, 2011). This study uses survey data merged with secondary data on IHEs to perform exploratory factor and regression analysis to answer these questions.

Find more of JoEllen Pope’s research, teaching, and interests see her website here.